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David Chang







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(2015-08-14 10:45)

法、英、美装饰风格之1800(上) The decorative styles in 1800s(Part I)


In the early 19th century, similar architectural style appeared during the same time in France, Britain, and the United States. The Empire style in France corresponds to the Regency style in Britain, and the Federal style in the United States. The three decorative styles present themselves under different social backgrounds.

拿破仑像 (Napoleon)


The Empire style originated and took its name from the rule of Napoleon I in the First French Empire. As Napoleon I, he was the French Emperor from 1804 until 1814. With a strong political ambition, he wanted to follow the pattern of the ancient Roman Empire to create a united Europe.Napoleon led France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars for expansionism and won the vast majority of these wars. With the exception of Britain, he rapidly gained control of continental Europe and held concurrent governing posts such as the King of Italy, the protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, the mediator of the Swiss Confederation and the Emperor of the French colony.

英王乔治四世 (George IV, King of the Britain)


The Regency style takes its name from George IV of the period circa 1811-1820. He served as Prince Regent of Wales during his father's mental illness. In the general regent period from 1795 to 1837, there were distinctive politics and culture characteristics.

美国开国元勋之一亚历山大·汉密尔顿 (Alexander Hamilton — founder of the U state)


The Federal style shares its name with its era, the Federal Period. The Federalist Era in American history ran from roughly 1776 to 1820, a time when the Federalist Party was dominant in American politics, including the beginning of the United States of America.


相互间的影响 Interactive effects


The Empire style represents the official artistic style of Napoleon's empire; it was intended to emphasize Napoleon's leadership. This style was driven by his success in military field, ambition on politics, adaptation on ancient artwork and association with the Ancient Roman Empire.  


 (A library at Napoleon's wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais’s rural residence Chateau de Malmaison in 1801)


From the late 18th century to the early 19th century, influenced by the French Directoire and Empire styles, Britain stylists tend to reproduce the decorations of ancient Greece and Roman from the perspective of archaeological significance.  With the usage of dark timber and facing, stylists formed an ancient and compromising Empire style via unifying plain structure of the ancient Greece furniture, grand form of ancient Roman marble and bronze as well as graceful decoration of ancient Greece.


(A banquet hall at British Brighton of the Royal Palace reflects the addiction of British king towards Indian culture.)

美国独立战争前, 1607年到1733年,英国殖民者先后在北美洲东岸(大西洋沿岸)建立了十三个殖民地,在18世纪中期,殖民地议会仍信奉英王乔治三世。因此,受历史环境影响,美国联邦风格对英国乔治时期的新古典主义造型有着广泛的借鉴,但比英国新古典主义风格简单、纯粹、少装饰,法国帝政风格的影响则常出现在青铜镀金零件和装潢线上。联邦风格所呈现出的主要特点是对称、精巧、轻盈、优雅和节制。

Before the American Revolution of 1607-1733, British colonizers had orderly established thirteen colonies in the Eastern North America (Atlantic coast). In the mid 18th century, the colonial assemblies still believed in George III. As a result of historical environment, the American Federal style learnt a lot from British neo-classicism style but simpler, purer and less decoration than it; while the French Empire style differed in gold-plated bronze parts and decorative lines. The Federal style showed the characteristics of symmetry, delicacy, lightness, elegance, and temperance.

左:旧金山一所种植园庄园。  右:华盛顿近郊一所住宅。

(Left: San Francisco plantation; right: Washington suburb residence)


—To be continued —



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