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David Chang

戴维国际设计
创办人及首席设计师

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法、英、美装饰风格之1800(上)

(2015-08-14 10:45)
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法、英、美装饰风格之1800(上) The decorative styles in 1800s(Part I)

历史上的1800年前后,法国、英国、美国几乎在同样的时间重叠出现了一种相近似的建筑装饰风格,法国称之为帝政风格,英国称之为摄政风格,美国则称之为联邦风格。这三种元素样式相对应的装饰风格具体呈现出怎样的表现形式呢?在了解之前,我们先来看看当时的社会背景。 

In the early 19th century, similar architectural style appeared during the same time in France, Britain, and the United States. The Empire style in France corresponds to the Regency style in Britain, and the Federal style in the United States. The three decorative styles present themselves under different social backgrounds.

拿破仑像 (Napoleon)

法国的帝政时期是指拿破仑时期。拿破仑是法兰西第一帝国的缔造者,1804年登上皇帝宝座的拿破仑(17691821)有着极强的政治野心,一心想效仿古罗马帝国的模式建立起统一的欧洲,他执政期间多次对外扩张,发动了拿破仑全面战争,兼任意大利国王、莱茵邦联的保护者、瑞士联邦的仲裁者、法兰西帝国殖民领主(殖民地有法国殖民地、荷兰殖民地、西班牙殖民地等),欧洲各国除英国外,都向拿破仑臣服。

The Empire style originated and took its name from the rule of Napoleon I in the First French Empire. As Napoleon I, he was the French Emperor from 1804 until 1814. With a strong political ambition, he wanted to follow the pattern of the ancient Roman Empire to create a united Europe.Napoleon led France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars for expansionism and won the vast majority of these wars. With the exception of Britain, he rapidly gained control of continental Europe and held concurrent governing posts such as the King of Italy, the protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, the mediator of the Swiss Confederation and the Emperor of the French colony.

英王乔治四世 (George IV, King of the Britain)

英国的摄政时期是指1811年至1820年间,乔治三世被认为不适于统治,他的儿子乔治四世被任命为他的代理人,由于乔治四世曾经以威尔士亲王摄王政,摄政时期因此得名。而广义的摄政时期指1795年至1837年,这一时期的政治和文化都表现出与众不同的特质,被称为摄政风格。

The Regency style takes its name from George IV of the period circa 1811-1820. He served as Prince Regent of Wales during his father's mental illness. In the general regent period from 1795 to 1837, there were distinctive politics and culture characteristics.

美国开国元勋之一亚历山大·汉密尔顿 (Alexander Hamilton — founder of the U state)

美国联邦时期风格是以美国第一个政党联邦党的名称命名的。美联邦时期始于1776年,止于1820年,其中包括新美利坚合众国的初期。

The Federal style shares its name with its era, the Federal Period. The Federalist Era in American history ran from roughly 1776 to 1820, a time when the Federalist Party was dominant in American politics, including the beginning of the United States of America.

 

相互间的影响 Interactive effects

帝政风格是拿破仑帝国的官方艺术风格,又译做帝国风格。帝政风格非常强调帝权象征,拿破仑在军事上的辉煌胜利和政治上勃勃雄心,他热衷复制古代工艺品,以及他想把自己的帝国和古罗马联想在一起,都成为这一风格的发展动力。 

The Empire style represents the official artistic style of Napoleon's empire; it was intended to emphasize Napoleon's leadership. This style was driven by his success in military field, ambition on politics, adaptation on ancient artwork and association with the Ancient Roman Empire.  

1801年拿破仑的妻子约瑟芬的乡村宅邸马尔迈松城堡,图片为宅邸中的图书馆——1801

 (A library at Napoleon's wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais’s rural residence Chateau de Malmaison in 1801)

18世纪末到19世纪初,英国受到法国执政内阁式和帝政式的影响,表露出一种试图从考古意义上真正再现古代希腊、古代罗马装饰的倾向,广泛使用外来的深色木料和饰面,设计者制造出很重的家具,把古代希腊家具的简朴结构、古代罗马大理石和青铜制品的豪壮形态、古代希腊的优美装饰等巧妙地统一起来,形成一种古代型的折衷样式的摄政风格。

From the late 18th century to the early 19th century, influenced by the French Directoire and Empire styles, Britain stylists tend to reproduce the decorations of ancient Greece and Roman from the perspective of archaeological significance.  With the usage of dark timber and facing, stylists formed an ancient and compromising Empire style via unifying plain structure of the ancient Greece furniture, grand form of ancient Roman marble and bronze as well as graceful decoration of ancient Greece.

英国布赖顿皇家行宫,其外型反映了当时英王对印度文化的迷恋,图片为行宫中的宴会厅。

(A banquet hall at British Brighton of the Royal Palace reflects the addiction of British king towards Indian culture.)

美国独立战争前, 1607年到1733年,英国殖民者先后在北美洲东岸(大西洋沿岸)建立了十三个殖民地,在18世纪中期,殖民地议会仍信奉英王乔治三世。因此,受历史环境影响,美国联邦风格对英国乔治时期的新古典主义造型有着广泛的借鉴,但比英国新古典主义风格简单、纯粹、少装饰,法国帝政风格的影响则常出现在青铜镀金零件和装潢线上。联邦风格所呈现出的主要特点是对称、精巧、轻盈、优雅和节制。

Before the American Revolution of 1607-1733, British colonizers had orderly established thirteen colonies in the Eastern North America (Atlantic coast). In the mid 18th century, the colonial assemblies still believed in George III. As a result of historical environment, the American Federal style learnt a lot from British neo-classicism style but simpler, purer and less decoration than it; while the French Empire style differed in gold-plated bronze parts and decorative lines. The Federal style showed the characteristics of symmetry, delicacy, lightness, elegance, and temperance.

左:旧金山一所种植园庄园。  右:华盛顿近郊一所住宅。

(Left: San Francisco plantation; right: Washington suburb residence)

 

—To be continued —

 

本期微信中,我们知道了帝政风格摄政风格联邦风格产生的社会背景和相互交融影响的历史脉络,下期微信,我们将为您详细介绍这三种风格的典型纹饰表现,敬请关注DCDA官方微信!

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